Child Health Training


Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) Training

In our country, malnutrition and low birth weight (LBW) contribute to about 50% deaths among infants and children under 5 years of age. It is obvious that for preventing deaths due to low birth weight, the health and nutritional status of mothers during pregnancy has to be taken care of. It is well established fact that care during or immediately after birth plays an important role in preventing deaths in the early neonatal period. Visiting the children at homes has been found to be a critical intervention which helps in preventing deaths. WHO/UNICEF developed a new approach to tackling the major diseases of early childhood called the Integrated Management of Childhood & Neonatal Illnesses (IMNCI). Studies show that children presenting with any illness often suffer from more than one disease. For instance, a child presenting with diarrhoea may also be malnourished and may not have received the immunization as per the National Immunization Schedule. The integrated approach ensures that all relevant needs of the child are looked at and attended to during the contact of the child with the health workers.

Facility-based Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses ( F-IMNCI) Training

IMNCI approach has been mentioned as the centerpiece of newborn and child health strategy. As more and more physicians and health workers are being trained in IMNCI young infants and sick children are being referred to first referral facilities. Medical Officers and Staff Nurses working in these facilities would be responsible for providing optimum care to the referred sick young infants and children. Hence building the capacity of the health workers in these facilities to manage sick neonates and children acquires greater importance. Facility Based Care for severely ill children is complementary to primary care for providing a continuum of care for severely ill children. Good quality inpatient care for children is required at these facilities to increase the impact of appropriate primary care interventions on child survival.

Child Health Training Progress since inception to till date​

Although childhood and infant mortality in India has reduced substantially during the last decade, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high. Nearly two-third infant deaths each year occur within the first four weeks of life and about two-thirds of those occur within the first week. Thus, the first days and weeks of life are critical for the future health and survival of a child. Newborn care often receives less-than optimum attention. It is now well known that the newborns themselves require special attention separate from that of their mothers to assure a healthy start to life. The immediate causes of newborn death include infection, birth asphyxia, complications related to premature birth and congenital anomalies. Most of the neonatal deaths can be prevented with simple, cost-effective solutions that do not depend on highly trained provider or sophisticated equipment.

Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) Training

Although childhood and infant mortality in India has reduced substantially during the last decade, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high. Nearly two-third infant deaths each year occur within the first four weeks of life and about two-thirds of those occur within the first week. Thus, the first days and weeks of life are critical for the future health and survival of a child. Newborn care often receives less-than optimum attention. It is now well known that the newborns themselves require special attention separate from that of their mothers to assure a healthy start to life. The immediate causes of newborn death include infection, birth asphyxia, complications related to premature birth and congenital anomalies. Most of the neonatal deaths can be prevented with simple, cost-effective solutions that do not depend on highly trained provider or sophisticated equipment.

Infant and Young Child Feeding(IYCF):

Is a set of well-known and recommended for appropriate feeding practices for new born and young children. It's a continued activity , IYCF is given to ANM’s, staff workers, nurse and lhv’s to provide IYCF practices to promote the brest feeding practices at the earliest to enhance the knowledge and skills among the expected mothers and to reduce imr and under five years mortality it is very essential to train all the service providers in IYCF practices.

The Key elements of adequate IYCF practices are: -

1.Timely initiation of breast feeding

2.Exclusive Breast feeding for 6 months

3.Continued Breast feeding to 24 months and beyond

4. Introduction to safe adequate and appropriate, complementary foods at 6 months.

FBNC- FACILITY based new born care- (SNCU) -

I It is a continued activity, the staff nurses are trained at identified IGICH & Vani vilas / Jayanagar general hospital through SIHFW

After training in FBNC staff nurses of district hospitals SNCU will utilize the skills and knowledge in their practices in giving effective, essential, new born care at birth managing low birth weight babies, pre mature babies' sick neonates discharged from the hospitals except those requiring mechanical ventilation and surgical interventions.

To update the skills and knowledge of the health personal working at NICU’s with recent advances & techniques proposed by govt of India it is essential to give them refresher training

Adolescent friendly health services (AFHS) Rashtriya kishore swasthya karyakram (RKSK): SNEHA CLINIC

Adolescent (10-19 years) Constitute 22% of the population adolescences are not the homogenous group again their situation varies by age sex, marital status, region and culture context. Large number of them are out of school, get married early, work in venerable situations, are sexually active and are exposed to peer pressure .These factors have serious social, economic and public health implication.

Adolescence health issues: -

1.Health interventions are not cognizant of adolescence development & growth like physical, mental, or related to personality development

2.Inadequately prepared for life and have unmet needs related to nutrition, reproductive and sexual health & mental health

3.Entering adulthood in poor health, anemia & Malnutrition have adverse intergenerational consequences.

4.Maternal mortality is higher among young women, has adverse impact on MMR.

5.Infant, mortality higher for young mothers, this also adversely impacts IMR.

6.Unintended Unwanted pregnancies s3ash unsafe abortion contributing maternal morbidity and mortality

7.Lack of knowledge regarding prevention leads to STI slash RTI & rising incidence HIV/ AIDS.

8.Substance abuse, dependance on alcohol, drug, smoking, tobacco, gutka etc.

9.Sexual abuse/violence, though Sexual health is important not to talk directly.

Severe Acute Malnutrition(SAM) NRC: NEONATAL REHABILITATION CENTRE

SAM Training is given to pediatricians, medical officers, diet Counceller's, and staff nurses of all the district NRC’s and also newly taluka hospitals staffs Malnutrition is a general term it most often refers to under nutrition resulting from inadequate consumption, poor absorption are excessive loss of nutrients. Otherwise, the term also refers to over nutrition, resulting from excessive intake. Malnutrition in children is widely prevalent in developing countries like India, more than 33%deaths in 0-5 years are associated with malnutrition.

Children With SAM are at risk of death from:-

1.Hypoglycemia, as here is less supply of glucose from liver and the muscle at the same time

2.Hypothermia, as basal BMR is reduced, they are likely to lose more heat than usual due to loss of insulating fat and a higher surface area per kg body weight

3. Fluid overload and cardiac failure due to changes in the functioning of the kidneys and heart.

4. Infections, as the bodies inflammatory and immune responses slows down, they are prone for infections.